English Literature Metropolis Ruhr (ca. year 1995 onwards)

Berndt, Christian (2001): Corporate Germany between Globalization and Regional Place Dependence: Business Restructuring in the Ruhr Area. Palgrave, June 2001.
Berndt, Christian (2004): Ruhr Firms between Dynamic Change and Structural Persistence – Globalization, the ‘German Model’ and Regional Place-Dependence. Article first published online: 1 APR 2004. Issue Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Volume 23, Issue 3.

Blotevogel, Hans Heinrich; Peter Schmitt (2005): The European Metropolitan Region Rhine-Ruhr in the context of the gradual paradigm shift in strategic planning in Germany. In: Feldhoff. T., Flüchter, W. (eds.): Proceedings of the Japanese-German Geographical Conference, No 1: Shaping the Future of Metropolitan Regions in Japan and Germany: Governance, Institutions and Place in New Context. Duisburg, p. 13 – 26.

Blotevogel, Hans Heinrich et al. (1996): Duisburg: From the City of Iron and Steel to the Metropolis of the Lower Rhine Valley? In: Heineberg, Heinz (ed.): The Rhine Valley – Urban, Harbor and Industrial Development and Environmental Problems. Leipzig: Laenderk, p. 72 – 81.

Blotevogel, Hans Heinrich (1998): The Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region: Reality and Discourse. European Planning Studies, Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 395 – 410.

Boemer, Hermann (2000): The Regional Impact of the ‘Hostile’ Takeover of Mannesmann by Vodafone on the Rhine-Ruhr Region – a New Paradigm for Stakeholders in / from Traditional Industrial Regions in Germany? Paper presented to the XIV AESOP congress at BRNO, Czech Republic 2000-07-18 – 23.

Boemer, Hermann (2000): The changing economy and evolution of development policies in the Ruhr 1978–1998. In: Couch, Chris, Hermann Boemer (eds.): Economic Restructuring, Urban Change and Environmental Policy in the Ruhr and Merseyside 1978–1998. Dortmund University.

Bosch, Gerhard (1995): Industrial Restructuring and Further Training in North-Rhine-Westphalia. In: Cooke, Philip, (ed.) (1995): The Rise of the Rustbelt. New York: St. Martin's Press, p.125ff.

Bronny, Horst; Norbert Jansen, Burkhard Wetterau (2004): The Ruhr Area: Structural Change of an Outstanding European Conurbation. Essen: Regionalverband Ruhr (RVR). Updated version.

Brüggemann, Jürgen; Gernot Pahlen, Susanne Glöckner (2005): Brownfield Regeneration and the Challenge of Sustainability. In: Butzin, Bernhard; Hans-Peter Noll (eds.) (2005): Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration in Europe - Improving the Quality of Derelict Land Recycling; Materialien zur Raumordnung 66; Bochum, p. 6 – 17.

Butzin, Bernhard (2012): English Abstracts of “Regional Information Ruhr”. www.ruhrgebiet-regionalkunde.de/ris_index.php.

Butzin, Bernhard; Hans-Peter Noll (eds.) (2005): Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration in Europe - Improving the Quality of Derelict Land Recycling; Materialien zur Raumordnung 66. Bochum.

Butzin, Bernhard; Hans-Peter Noll (eds.) (2005): Editorial: Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration in Europe – Improving the Quality of Derelict Land Recycling. In: Butzin, Bernhard; Hans-Peter Noll (eds.) (2005): Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration in Europe - Improving the Quality of Derelict Land Recycling. Materialien zur Raumordnung 66. Bochum, p. 3 – 5.

Butzin, Bernhard (2005): Brownfields as a challenge of urban development in the Ruhr. In: Butzin, Bernhard; Noll, Hans-Peter (eds.): Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration in Europe - Improving the Quality of Derelict Land Recycling; Materialien zur Raumordnung 66. Bochum, p. 78 – 85.

Cooke, Philip (ed.) (1995): The Rise of the Rustbelt. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Cosse, Hannah (2005): Neue Mitte" in the middle of nowhere - Structural Change for the Better? Faculty of Business, Public Administration and Technology. (Seminar paper, 25 p.). University of Twente; P.O. Box 217 7500 AE Enschede Niederlande
Quelle: www.hausarbeiten.de/faecher/vorschau/65881.html (date of citation: March 2013)

Danielzyk, Rainer; Gerald Wood (2004): Innovative Strategies of Political Regionalization. The Case of North Rhine-Westfalia. European Planning Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 191 – 207.

Davies, Sara (1995): Training Policy and Practice in Wales and North-Rhine- Westphalia. In: Cooke, Philip, (ed.) (1995): The Rise of the Rustbelt. New York: St. Martin's Press, p. 139ff.

Degener
, Janna (no year): The Ruhr region: Between lecture halls and blast furnaces – studying in Germany's industrial ‘’Pott’’ region / Study in Germany. Bonn: German Academic Exchange Service. (no year; date of citation: March 2013))
Dielemann, F.M; A. Faludi (1998): Randstad, Rhine-Ruhr and Flemish Diamond as One Polynucleated Macro-Region? In: Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Vol. 89, No 3. p. 320 – 327.


Ebert, Ralf; Friedrich Gnad, Klaus R. Kunzmann (2007): Culture and Creative Industries in the Ruhr. In: Urban Planning International. Vol. 22, No. 3. Beijing, p. 41-46.


Ehses, Birgit (2006): The Ruhrgebiet: Facts and Figures. New revised edition. Essen RVR 2006, 121 p.
Föhl, Axel (2002): The Ruhr = Das Ruhrgebiet. Hamburg: Ellert und Richter. 123 p.

Fox, K. (2001): Selling NRW: marketing and urban regeneration in Germany.
Unpublished paper, South Bank University, London.


Franz, Martin; Peter Nathanail (2005): A sustainability assessment framework for brownfield regeneration. In: Butzin, Bernhard; Hans-Peter Noll (ed.) (2005): Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration in Europe - Improving the Quality of Derelict Land Recycling. Materialien zur Raumordnung 66. Bochum, p. 18 – 30.

Franz, Martin; Orhan Güles, Gisela Prey (2008): Place-Making and ‘Green’ Reuses of Brownfields in the Ruhr. In: Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie – 2008, Vol. 99, No. 3, p. 316–328.


Franz, Martin; Orhan Güles, Gisela Prey (2007): Non-viable Brownfield Sites and the Potentials of Urban-Industrial Woodlands in the Ruhr. In: CABERNET (ed.): Proceedings of CABERNET 2007. The 2nd International Conference on Managing Urban Land. Stuttgart, p. 363-371.


Freundt, Andreas (2002): Culture Industries in Old Industrialized Regions: A Successful Strategy for Innovative Regional Development? www.raumplanung.tu-dortmund.de/rwp/ersa2002/en/documents/ersa2002papers_savedir/259.pdf (date of citation: March 2013)

Fürst, Dieter; Heiderose Kilper (1995): The Innovative Power of Regional Policy Networks – a Comparison of Two Approaches to Political Modernization in North Rhine-Westfalia. In: European Planning Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 287 – 304.

Goch
, Stefan (2002): Betterment without Airs: Social, Cultural and Political Consequences of the Deindustrialization in the Ruhr Area, in: International Review of Social History, Vol. 3, 2002.

Grohè, Thomas; Klaus R. Kunzmann (1999):  The International Building Exhibition Emscher Park: Another Approch to Sustainable Development. In: N. Lutzky, et al. (eds.) Strategies for Sustainable Development of European Metropolitan Regions. European Metropolitan Regions Project. Evaluation Report. Urban 21: Global Conference on the Urban Future.( Enlosed CD).

Grote-Westrick, Dagmar; Dieter Rehfeld (2003): Clusters and Cluster policies in regions of structural change - comparing three regions in North Rhine-Westphalia. = Paper for the International Conference of the Regional Studies Association, 12th - 15th April 2003 in Pisa, Italy. www.iatge.de/aktuell/veroeff/2003/grote01.pdf (date of citation: November 2012)

Gualini, E. (2000): Networking the Urban Policy Arena – Local Governance and the Regionalisation of Territorial Policy Making in North Rhine-Westphalia. Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, Jg. 44, Heft 3/4, p. 201 – 216.

Hassink, Robert (1992): Regional Innovation Policy: Case-Studies from the Ruhr Area, Baden Württemberg and the North East of England. Utrecht: University of Utrecht.

Heineberg
, Heinz; Norbert De Lange, Alois Mayr (eds.) (1996): The Rhine Valley. Urban, Harbour and Industrial Development and Environmental Problems. A Regional Guide dedicated to the 28th International Geographical Congress, The Hague 1996. = Beiträge zur Regionalen Geographie des Institut für Länderkunde (ifl), Band 41. Leipzig.

Hospers, Gert-Jan (2002): Industrial Heritage Tourism and Regional Restructuring in the European Union. European Planning Studies Vol. 10, Nr 3, 2002.

Hospers
, Gert-Jan (2004): Restructuring Europe’s Rustbelt. The Case of the German Ruhrgebiet. In: Intereconomics, May/June 2004, pp. 147 – 156.

Hospers, Gert-Jan (2004): Regional economic change in Europe: a neo-Schumpeterian Vision. Münster: LIT-Verlag. p. 112 – 128.

Hotchkiss, G. (2002): An Examination of the Way in which the Environment Has Played a Central Role in the Redevelopment of the Ruhr. Unpublished paper. London: South Bank University,.

House for the History of the Ruhr (ed. 2013): The Documentation Center Ruhr Research (DSR): www.isb.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/bdr/dok_ruhr.html.en (Library of the Ruhr) (date of citation: March 2013)

Van Houtum, H.; A. Lagendijk (2001): Contextualising Regional Identity and Imagination in the Construction of Polycentric Urban Regions: The Case of the Ruhr Area and Basque Country. In: Urban Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4, p. 747 – 768.

Huggins, Robert; Reinhard Thomalla (1995): Promoting Innovation through Technology Networks in North Rhine-Westphalia. In: Cooke, Philip, ed. (1995): The Rise of the Rustbelt. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 20ff.

IBA (ed.) (1999): Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher Park – Short Information Including Large IBA Map. Gelsenkirchen.

Iking, Bernhard (2004): Promoting Industrial Change in Structurally Disfavoured Regions – The Case of the “Ruhr-Valley” in Germany – with Special Emphasis on the Current Restructuring Plan of the City of Dortmund”. www.zenit.de/d/service/dld/arichiv-download/PromotingIndustrialChange_2004.pdf (date of citation: March 2013)

Keil, Andreas; Burkhard Wetterau (2013): Metropolis Ruhr: A Regional Study of the New Ruhr. Essen: Regionalverband Ruhr (RVR).

Kiese, Matthias (Vortrag 2011): Promoting Structural Change Through Cluster Policies? A Comparison of Experiences From U.S. and German "Rustbelts". Third Global Conference on Economic Geography, Seoul, 30 June 2011 (with R. Sternberg and D. Stockinger). www.geographie.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/arbeitsbereiche/stadt-und-regionaloekonomie/mitarbeiter-innen/kiese/vortraege/ (date of citation: March 2013)

Kift, Roy (2014): Tour the Ruhr: The English Language Guide (4th ed., 2011. 5th ed. (ebook) 2014). Essen: Klartext Verlag.

Kilper, Heiderose,  Gerald Wood (1995): Restructuring Policies: The Emscher Park International Building Exhibition. In: Cooke, Philip, ed. (1995): The Rise of the Rustbelt. New York: St. Martin's Press.  p. 208-230.

Knapp, Wolfgang (1998): The Rhine-Ruhr Area in transformation: Towards an European Metropolitan Region? European Planning Studies, Vol. 6, 1998, p. 379 - 393.

Knapp, Wolfgang; Klaus R. Kunzmann; Peter Schmitt (2003): RheinRuhr.  In: E. J. Meijjers, A. Romein and E.C. Hoppenbrouwer (eds.) (2003): Planning  Polycentric  Regions in North West Europe. EURBANET Report No 2. Housing and Urban Policy Studies, 25, Delft, 154-195.

Knapp, Wolfgang; Klaus R. Kunzmann, Peter Schmitt (2004): A co-operative Spatial Future for Rhein-Ruhr. In: European Planning Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3, p. 323 – 349.

Knapp, Wolfgang; Daniela Scherhag, Peter Schmitt (2005): Commuting and the Definition of Functional Urban Regions - Rhine Ruhr. Institute of Community Studies/The Young Foundation & Polynet Partners.

Knapp, Wolfgang; Daniela Scherhag, Peter Schmitt (2006): Rhine Ruhr: "Polycentricity" at its Best? In: Hall, P., Pain, K. (eds.): The Polycentric Metropolis. p. 154 – 162.

Knapp, Wolfgang; Peter Schmitt (2002): The Socio-Economic Profile of the Rhein Ruhr. In: Les Cahiers de l‘IAURIF: Economic Performance of the European Regions – GEMACA, No. 135 – 4e quarter 2002, p. 66 – 72.

Knapp, Wolfgang; Peter Schmitt, Rainer Danielzyk (2006): Rheine Ruhr: Towards Compatibility? Strategic Spatial Policies for a Specific Configuration of Polycentricity. In: Built Environment, Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 137 – 147.

Knapp, Wolfgang; R. Weber (1996): Rhein Ruhr. In: GEMACA (ed.): North-West European Metropolitan Regions. Geographical Boundaries and Economic Structures. Paris. p. 97 – 112.

Kommunalverband Ruhrgebiet and Cornelsen Verlag (ed.) (1995): Foliothek Ruhrgebiet. Essen und Berlin.

Krajewski
, Christian (2008): Postmodern Tourism and Experience Economies in the Ruhr Valley as a Strategy for Structural Change. In: Hardy, S. et al. (2008): Regions: The Dilemmas of Integration and Competition. Conference Abstract Volume. 27th - 29th May 2008. University of Economics Prague. p. 111, also as Academic Paper online under: www.regional-studies-assoc.ac.uk/events/270508papers.asp (Regional Studies Association International Conference) (date of citation: March 2013)

Kunzmann
, Klaus R. (1995): Developing the Regional Potential for Creative Response to Structural Change. In: Brotchie, J., et al. (eds.): Cities in Competition: Productive and Sustainable Cities for the 21st Century. Melbourne, Longman, p. 386 – 230.

Kunzmann, Klaus R. (1998): World City Regions in Europe: Structural Change and future challenges = Chapter 3. p. 37 – 73 ) [Rhine Ruhr]. books.google.de/books (date of citation: March 2013)

Kunzmann, Klaus R. (1999): White Works Elephants in the Park for the Future. Topos, European Landscape Magazine, March (26), p. 79 – 86.

Kunzmann, Klaus R. (2001): The Ruhr in Germany. A Laboratory for Regional Governance. In: Albrechts, L.; Alden, J., Rosa, A. D. (eds.): The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning. Aldershot. p. 133 – 158.

Kunzmann, Klaus R. (2002): Exploring the Ruhr in Germany: Zum wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund des Stipendiatenprogramms des Initiativkreises Ruhrgebiet. In: Initiativkreis Ruhrgebiet (ed.): Exploring the Ruhr in Germany, Essen, p. 24-26.

Kunzmann, Klaus R.  (2004): Creative Brownfield Redevelopment: The Experience of the IBA Emscher Park Initiative in the Ruhr in Germany. In: Greenstein, Roslalind and Yesim Sungu-Eryilmaz  (eds): Recycling the City: The Use and Reuse of Urban Land. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, 2004, p. 201-217.

Kunzmann, Klaus R. (2007): The Ruhr and IBA: Revitalizing an Old Industrial Region. (Guest editor, together with Wang Fang and Liu Jian), Urban Planning International Vol. 22, Nr.3. Beijing. With diverse articles (in Chinese) on the achievements of regeneration policies in the Ruhr/Germany.

Kunzmann, Klaus R.;  Caren Heidemann; Caren; Klaus Wermker (2012):  Turning knolwedge cities into a knowledge region.  In: Tan Yigitcanlar, Kostas Metaxiotis, Francisco Carrillo, Eds. Building Prosperous Knowledge Cities: Policies, Plans and Metrics . London: Edward Elgar publishers,  p. 260-275.

Kunzmann, Klaus R. (2013): Ruhrgebietslied. In: Meine Pieter van Dijk, Jan van der Meer and Jan van der Borg (eds.): From urban systems to sustainable competitive metropolitan regions. Essays in honor of Leo van den Berg", Erasmus University Rotterdam, p. 71-91.

Kushner, J. A. (2000): Germany, Social Sustainability: Planning for Growth in Distressed Places – The German Experience in Berlin, Wittenberg, and The Ruhr. Journal of Law & Policy, Vol. 3, p. 849 – 874.

Lagendijk, A.; H. van Houtum (2001): Contextualising Regional Identity and Imagination in the Construction of Polycentric Urban Regions: the Cases of the Ruhr Area and Basque Country. In: Urban Studies, Vol. 38, 2001, p. 747-768.

Lichtenberg
, Julia Felizitas (2008): Ruhr 2010 – Integration as Answer to Demographic Changes. Dissertation, Oxford Brookes University, Department of Planning, May 2008.

Mahler, Gerd (2009): The Ruhr Metropolis. www.hs-owl.de/fb9/fileadmin/archiv/FB9/Landschaftsplanung/Landschaftsplanung_und_Tourismus/Ruhr_metropolis.pdf (date of citation: March 2013)

Metropole Ruhr (ed.) (2013): New insights into the Ruhr region. www.metropoleruhr.de/en/home/home.html (date of citation: March 2013)

Metropole Ruhr
(ed.): New in Europe: The Ruhr Metropolis. www.metropoleruhr.de/metanavigation-oben/englisch.html (date of citation: March 2013)

Ministerium für Wirtschaft, Energie, Bauen Wohnen und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (MWEBV) (ed.) (2010): Jahresbericht 2009 der  Bergbehörden des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen.

Morris
, Jonathan; Rolf Plake (1995): The Restructuring of the Steel Industries in Germany and Great Britain. In: Cooke, Philip, ed. (1995): The Rise of the Rustbelt. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995, p. 72ff.

Münter, Angelika (2011): Germany's Polycentric Metropolitan Regions in the World City Network. In: Raumforschung und Raumordnung 69, Heft 3, p. 187 - 200.

NRW-Forum Kultur und Wirtschaft Düsseldorf / MVRDV (ed.) (2002): Rhein Ruhr City. The Hidden Metropolis. The Regionmaker. Ostfildern-Ruit.

Pahlen, Gernot; Martin Franz (2005): Sustainable Regeneration of European Brownfield Sites - Criteria for Future Funding Decisions. In: CABERNET (Ed.): Proceedings of CABERNET 2005 - The International Conference on Managing Urban Land, p. 282 - 287.

Percy, Susan (2003): The Ruhr: From Dereliction to Recovery. In: Couch, Chris; Charles Fraser, Susan Percy (eds.): Urban Regeneration in Europe. Blackwell Science.

von Petz
, U. (1997): The German Metropolitan Region – the Ruhr Basin: Toward a new Spatial Policy. In: Boosma, K. et al. (eds.) (1997): Mastering the City – North European City Planning 1900 – 2000. Rotterdam: NAI Publishers/EFL Publications, p. 56 – 65.

von Petz
, U. (1999): Robert Schmidt and the Public Park Policy in the Ruhr District 1900 – 1930. Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, p. 163 – 182.

Petzina, Dietmar (1998): The Ruhr Area: Historical Development. In: Hesse, Joachim Jens (ed): Regional Structural Change and Industrial Policy in International Perspective: United States, Great Britain, France, Federal Republic of Germany. Baden-Baden: Nomos, p. 465 – 509.

Prey
, Gisela (2008): From Urban Brownfield Sites to Post-Industrial Green - An Example for Non- Profit Brownfield Reuse. In: Smaniotto Costa, Carlos et al. (Eds.): Urban Green Spaces - A Key for Sustainable Cities. International Conference, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 17-18, 2008. Conference Reader. Dresden: IÖR, 2008, p. 91-94.

Prossek, Achim (2011): Re-designing the metropolis: purpose and perception of the Ruhr district as European Capital of Culture 2010. In: Schmid, Heiko/Wolf-Dietrich Sahr/John Urry (ed.): Cities and Fascination. Beyond the Surplus of Meaning. London: Ashgate , p. 147-168.

Prossek, Achim (2006): "Culture Through Transformation - Transformation Through Culture". Industrial Heritage in the Ruhr region - the Example of the Zeche Zollverein. In: Hassenpflug, Dieter; Kolbmüller, Burkhardt; Schröder-Esch, Sebastian (ed.): Heritage and Media in Europe - Contributing Towards Integration and Regional Development. Weimar 2006, Vol. 3, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar.

Prossek, Achim (2004): A Coal Mine is not a Coal Mine: Image Improvement and Symbolic Representation of the Ruhr. In: Eckardt, F.; Kreisl, P. (eds.): City Images and Urban Regeneration. The European City in Transition. Vol. 3, Frankfurt/Main, pp. 67 – 81.

Redgrove, N. (2002): Planning for Sustainable Development in the Ruhr. Unpublished paper, South Bank University, London.

Rehfeld
, Dieter (1995): Disintegration and Reintegration of Production Clusters in the Ruhr Area. In: Cooke, Philip, ed. (1995): The Rise of the Rustbelt. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995, p. 85ff.

Reicher
, Christa (2008): International Building Exhibition Emscher Park: IBA, the projects 10 years after. Essen: Klartext-Verlag, 204 p.

Regionalverband Ruhr (ed.) (2010): Under the open Sky. Emscher Landscape Park. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Regionalverband Ruhr (ed.) (2010): Field studies. The new Aestethics of Urban Africulture. Feldtusien. Zur neuen Ästethik urbaner Landwirtschaft. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Regionalverband Ruhr (ed.) (2011): The Ruhr Metropolis Small Atlas. The Changing Ruhr. Essen: Regionalverband Ruhr.

Regionalverband Ruhr (ed.) (2013): The Ruhrgebiet. Facts and Figures. Essen: Regionalverband Ruhr.

Ruhr (no year, no author): en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhr (date of citation: March 2013)

RUHR.2010 GmbH / Büro STADTIDEE (ed.). (2010): The Housing Culture Trail. Living in Ruhr Metropolis. Essen: Klartext Verlagsgesellschaft.

Ruhr Area (no year, no author): www.log4green.eu/index.php/regions/ruhr-area (date of citation: March 2013)

Ruhrenergy (ed.) (no year): Technologies. www.ruhrenergy.de/kompetenzatlas/web/atlas/kapitel.php (date of citation: March 2013)

Ruhrgebiet (2012): New in the City Ruhrgebiet. eBook. The bilingual guide for the city and relocation magazine. www.newinthecity.de/en/new-in-the-city-magazine-shop/new-in-the-city-ebook-memberships/view-membership-details/1-ebooks/1-new-in-the-city-ruhrgebiet-ebook-2012.html (date of citation: March 2013)

Ruhr - University Bochum, Faculty of Geoscience - Geographical Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum – Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of the federal state of North Rhine Westfalia (eds) (o. J.): Industrial woodlands - A learning and experiencing room for children of the “open elementary full-time schools” in NRW. www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/industriewald/english_version.htm (date of citation: March 2013)

Schmitt
, Peter; W. Knapp, Klaus R. Kunzmann (2003): Future Spatial Policies for Rhine-Ruhr. In: Romein, A., Meijers, E., Lambregts, B. (eds.): Polynuclear Urban Regions in North West Europe. Housing and Urban Policy Studies 25, p. 154-195.


Shaw, Robert (2002): The International Building Exhibition (IBA) Emscher Park, Germany: A Model for Sustainable Restructuring? European Planning Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 77-97.


Slanitz, Birte (2008): Effects of cultural events on tourism in cities and regions. Case Study: The Ruhr Area as the European Capital of Culture 2010, Bournemouth University, GB, European Tourism Management. Master’s thesis.

Siebel
, Walter (1999): Industrial Past and Urban Future in the Ruhr. In: Blanke. B., et al. (eds.): Cities in Transition – New Challenges New Responsibilities. London: MacMillan Press, p. 123 – 134.

Thornton
, Gerith; Martin Franz, David Edwards, Paul Nathanail (2005): Incentives for sustainable brownfield regeneration. In: Butzin, Bernhard; Noll, Hans-Peter (ed.) (2005): Sustainable Brownfield Regeneration in Europe - Improving the Quality of Derelict Land Recycling; Materialien zur Raumordnung 66. Bochum, p. 60 – 77.

Wehling, Hans-Werner (2011): The Ruhr Metropolis Small Atlas. Essen: Regionalverband Ruhr (RVR).

Wiechmann
, Thorsten; Karina Pallagst (2012): Urban shrinkage in Germany and the USA: a Comparison of Transformation Patterns and Local Strategies. International Jounal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 36.2, 2012, Oxford, p. 261 - 280.

Wirtschaftsförderung Metropole Ruhr (no year): Data, facts and figures. business.metropoleruhr.de/en/location/data-facts-and-figures.html (date of citation: March 2013).

Wirtschaftsförderung Metropole Ruhr (no year): The location in a nutshell. business.metropoleruhr.de/en/location/the-location-in-a-nutshell.html (date of citation: March 2013).

Wirtschaftsförderung Metropole Ruhr (no year): City and District profiles. business.metropoleruhr.de/en/location/city-and-district-profiles.html (date of citation: March 2013).

Wirtschaftsförderung Metropole Ruhr (no year): Science and Research. business.metropoleruhr.de/en/location/science-research.html (date of citation: March 2013).

Wirtschaftsförderung Metropole Ruhr (2012): Wirtschaftsbericht 2012. Leitmärkte und Beschäftigungsstrukturen. Essen: Wirtschaftsförderung Metropole Ruhr GmbH. business.metropoleruhr.de/fileadmin/user_upload/wmr.de/tmp/Downloads-neu/Wirtschaftsbericht_Ruhr_2012.pdf (date of citation: July 2013)